The young ones show themselves today to be cleverer than many grown-ups. All Nine! Subscribe to the War Loans! Gerd Paul, Hann and Hein are two U-boat sailors who have written to her for advice on how best to raise money for the war effort. These documentary films, which were acclaimed by both critics and cinema audiences, were intended to boost morale and support the official propaganda line that the controversial resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare would end the Allied blockade and bring a swift end to the war At the front, troops laughed at sermons that tended to consist of nothing more than chauvinistic claptrap.
Women were encouraged to use food substitutes, not to complain to husbands fighting at the front, and above all not to have sexual intercourse with prisoners of war Lectures in factories were rare and if used the lecture would invariably be given by the factory owner or a retired professional. One report noted that for a lecture in Suhl at a factory with 1, workers only 70 workers collected free tickets, and even fewer came, even though they would have had a paid respite from the drudgery of factory work The exception was in the field of entertainment, and particularly film entertainment, where war-time developments were to have long-term implications for the German film industry.
Throughout , Ludendorff had been stressing the importance of film as a propaganda medium and calling for the industry to be centralised. As a result, a new umbrella organization financed jointly by the State and private industry was founded on 18 December and became known as Universum-Film-Aktiengesellschaft Ufa.
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Ufa was envisaged as the catalyst through which film production, facilities and film theatres would be improved and increased. Film production was no longer to reflect the lowest tastes of the masses. The State was eventually forced to sell its holdings in the company. Even so, despite the turmoil in Germany in , Ufa quickly asserted its independence in the field of film production.
He also confirmed that there was no need for the campaign to remain secret Hence his concern that party politics should be kept out of the campaign. In practise, of course, it was a politically driven, undisguised attack on the Left. Not surprisingly the patriotic instruction programme incurred widespread hostility from political opponents The Regional Deputy Commanding Generals were also expressing misgivings. Not only were these officers unable to communicate effectively with their audiences but, moreover, tended to choose speakers who were similarly out of touch.
A lack of suitable speakers, however, was proving a major obstacle to the successful implementation of the programme. The War Press Office had informed the War Ministries as early as May that the call-up of large numbers of teachers had created a crisis particularly for school and youth authorities In fact the problem was more profound than simply a lack of speakers, although this was important; the campaign was fundamentally ill-conceived and flawed from the outset, both psychologically and politically.
As men and women were collapsing in the factories for lack of food, they were being subjected to the most banal and jingoistic claptrap. Hate was in the troops.
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Ludendorff steadfastly refused to contemplate establishing a Reich Press Office responsible for civilian morale that would complement the War Press Office By appealing to national unity and patriotic notions of sacrifice, courage and faith — at a time of mounting casualties and food shortages — Ludendorff and the OHL had played out its hand. The right words are victorious battles and the wrong words are lost battles.. Hitler, Mein Kampf London, , p. Hitler devoted two chapters in Mein Kampf to the study and practice of propaganda.
Politics and Propaganda London, 2 nd edn , pp. Profile of a Dictator London, , pp. Welch, Germany Propaganda and Total War Tauris, Verhey, The Spirit of Martel ed. A Companion to Europe, Oxford: Blackwell, , pp. Kocka, Facing Total War. German Society Leamington Spa, , p. Kitchen, The Silent Dictatorship. Tschuppik, Ludendorff. Venohr, Ludendorff: Legende und Wirklichkeit Berlin, Brief, perceptive comments on Ludendorff can be found in K.
See also, R. Hindenburg by contrast Riezler was advisor to Bethmann Hollweg. It should not have been resisted, but encouraged. True, many of them knew perfectly well what they were after in this struggle. Authority was at stake!. Ludendorff took a rather cynical view of mass psychology and believed that the people could be easily swayed by slogans etc. Nicolai is an illusive figure, although he was arguably the most important single individual associated with German propaganda.
The surviving papers suggest that he was not a great innovator but a conscientious and devoted administrator. See, P. Taylor, Munitions of the Mind. For examples of reported worsening state of civilian morale, Cf.
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The executive board of the Kultur-Bund was made up of President Prof. Plank and Leo Frobenius. Holt London, , II, pp. See the review of carried out by the War Press Office that hints at the ongoing conflict between military and civilian censorship agencies. The impossibility of a peace so long as the Kaiser remained in power in Germany was continually drawn to the attention of the German people. For an analysis of anti-monarchist propaganda employed by the Allies see, G. Sixteen papers were presented by distinguished historians of late nineteenth and early twentieth century German history.
The essays were edited by John C. A more convincing confirmation of continuities between Wilhelmine Germany and the Nazis can be found not in a biography of the Kaiser but of August von Mackensen. See, T. Generalfeldmarschall August von Mackensen Paderborn, The centenary of the outbreak of World War I has resulted in a plethora of new works on the conflict and many more will follow as various landmark anniversaries are commemorated. Far from being a ruthless dictator, the Kaiser constantly prevaricated and his political leadership was weak. Wilhelm II was no Hitler.
See also, W.
London, See also U. Daniel, The War from Within. For brief descriptions of these and other German posters see, J. Darracott and B. Paret, B. Irwin Lewis and P.
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Paret, Persuasive Images. Posters of War and Revolution Princeton, RM3, Bd. The following information is taken from this document. Wilhelm Deist has suggested that the patriotic instruction campaign was a response to the Reichstag peace resolution of 19 July See below, Note A detailed analysis of the Mitteilungen warrants further study as it covered every conceivable topic and provides an extraordinary insight into the military mind.
Ludendorff, Urkunden, pp. Two examples of recommended reading provide a flavour of the jingoistic literature; H. Beier Vom Bismarck zum Weltkrieg and K. On the home front, librarians were recording that the public were no longer reading books on the war, but were much more interested in books on gardening! Moyer, Victory Must Be Ours. Germany in the Great War New York, , p. One of the criticism levelled at the alleged failure of German propaganda in World War I was that military and civil authorities failed to invest enough money in the propaganda campaigns.
A recurring theme in the Kriegsarchiv folder is how little speakers were paid and the bureaucratic zeal with which officials attempted to recover the smallest of sums. Grosz, Ein kleines Ja und ein grosses Nein. The War Ministry was particularly concerned during this period at the anti-war activities of the German Socialist Youth Movement. Postcards of the Field Marshal were bought for 10 pfg and posters and picture memories Errinerungsblatt for 50 pfg. For an analysis of German postcards as propaganda and the role of advertising see, R.
Lebeck and M. In fact the film -was so successful that it was re-released in to promote the Ninth War Loan. Porten together with other movie stars, such as Asta Nielson and Paul Wegener, would frequently appear in public to promote war loans. Kinematograph, , 12 September Oppelt, Film und Propaganda im Ersten Weltkrieg. For the relationship between German women and prisoners of war see, Chr, Beck ed. Die Frau und die Kriegsgefangenen, vol. See also, below Note Kreimeier, The Ufa Story.
In the course of the debate on the new war loan, the OHL, the Fatherland Party and Pan-German groups were roundly attacked and accused of manipulating the patriotic instruction campaign for the purpose of annexationist propaganda. For the debate see, Verhandlungen des Reichstags, 6 October , Westarp, Konservative Politik im letzten Jahrzehnt des Kaisserreiches, vol. The meeting of 4 November took place at Charville and moved the following day to G. Ludendorff, War Memories, p. Subtitled learning together is fun "Huckepack" contains 14 themed chapters based on different times of the year and specific child related topics.
The "Materialienbuch" contains worksheets with exerci Through action stories, cartoons, songs, rhymes, games and multisensory activities, "Ja Klar" introduces children to German in an easy and pleasant way. Each volume offers 10 units focusing on a spec Try our advanced search facility. Still unable to find what you want?