This corpus is the main reference, which does not mean the exclusion of other works. As a complement, dozens of other publications were used, in order to supplement information and enrich the research. The supplementary material to the main corpus consists of journal texts, academic portals, scientific papers presented at events, as well as books and book chapters that present topics related to the analysed subject viii. For analytical purposes, the environmental representations of rural world were grouped into two categories: the idealized rural and degraded rural.
This procedure is justified by the prospect of environmental media coverage in both countries, whose logic consecrated this duality, although it is a built dichotomy, open to criticism. To embrace it, therefore does not mean that we agree with the way this duality is built. The criterion was the relevance that these two representations assume in the media content analysed.
Volume 58 / Humanities
The criticism will be presented in the conclusions. In Brazil, in this idyllic view, which refers to the mythological vision of paradise, either the Amazon, Cerrado, Caatinga, or the Pampas and other natural landscapes recognized for their beauty are portrayed by the media as enchanted places, laden with mysteries, legends and myths Barros, In addition to the landscape itself, illustrated magazines and special TV series highlight aspects of the diversity of fauna and rare species.
The virgin places, even without recording the presence of men, were given special attention. From this point of view, surprising the audience with rare bucolic images appeal seems to be one of the main editorial motivations. The environment is not yet integrated to the logic of environmental newsworthiness. Just the landscape is new to the public or there is a related appeal to the charms of nature or something that can surprise even the scientists themselves.
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In this nature of representation stage, there is a kind of patriotic and vainglorious narcissism, based on the continuous need to display an expanded repertoire of beautiful landscapes, as "the only game in South America, the tropics or Brazil" Barros, The idealization of rural life includes reports on fascinating discoveries of Brazilian biodiversity, with the inventory and identification of species still unknown to scientists and to the public.
Reports of spectacular natural phenomena typical of the Brazilian landscape are also widely explored, such as the hydrodynamic phenomenon of tidal bore in the Amazon. Similarly, the articles that privilege images of rare orchids, large birds and species of peculiar corner are common Barros, Fall into this same perspective representations about the lifestyle of indigenous peoples and maroons descendants. The symbolic universe of indigenous peoples is explored thoroughly, as idealized and romanticized representation. In Portugal, the tropical ecosystems are also the subject of idealized media coverage of the rural world, "represented as distant curiosity ix , wild, object of knowledge and enjoyment and only recently as a global problem, given the risk of its destruction " SCHMIDT, , p.
PDF O Vermelho e o Negro (Portuguese Edition)
This representation was reinforced by the view of Brazilian soap operas, as well as reports and documentaries that explore the image of lush tropical forests, whether in Africa or in remaining areas in South America. It is a "candid discourse on forest as wilderness benign ". The exploitation of the image of natural landscapes of broad aesthetic appeal becomes one of the trends of the Portuguese television, "a kind of slideshow of beautiful views.
The association with water is due to its landscape, "very important as aesthetic representation and place of recreation, deriving also for economic value, as a natural resource" SCHMIDT, , p. In terms of local production still stand out documentaries and special reports on peasant populations, presented as if they were living in "wise and peaceful interaction with the environment" SCHMIDT, , p. The author compares these populations to endangered species: "They and their practices, because the product of the interaction between people and environment is often given as an excellence of goods: bread, cheese, sausages, snacks, some typical dishes In the Portuguese television production still stands out the program "There is only Earth," RTP Portuguese Radio and Television , which exhibited series of documentaries and reports on various ecological issues.
As stressed by Schmidt , the issue of nuclear energy, natural disasters, major pollution accidents and the first oil crisis marked the agenda of programs and environmental news until Even during the dictatorship, that program addressed local issues, but the intensity increases with the beginning of the democratic period, with media coverage of issues such as pollution of watersheds. The emergence of private channels increased environmental media coverage. In this sociomediatic track, ecotourism or rural tourism is portrayed by the media of both countries as a practice that seeks the nostalgia of country life, the return to Arcadia.
Chapter Thirteen. The Portugese State in India
Thus, "there were films about trips and the landscape, animals on the landscape" p. Hence, the media construct a new representation of the idealized rural:. Of each one in particular, it is highlighted its morphological and chromatic character, in short, landscape, with timely approach to one or another detail: a plant, an animal, a type of rock, a native or craftsman, in its life of ecological Integration in the landscape SCHMIDT, , p.
This trend is consolidated with the valuation of land images, replacing consecrated representations of the sea and rivers. With protected areas, rural pictures become valued under the mountains, dunes, valleys and hills. The emergence of protected areas has changed the media framing on rural environment in Portugal.
It shows how early modern natural philosophers pursued new natural knowledge in dialogue with their recent material past. Editors: Heather Graham and Lauren G. Visualizing Sensuous Suffering and Affective Pain in Early Modern Europe and the Spanish Americas is a trans-cultural collection of studies on visual treatments of the phenomena of suffering and pain in early modern culture. Ranging geographically from Italy, Spain, and the Low Countries to Chile, Mexico, and the Philippines and chronologically from the fourteenth to the eighteenth centuries, these studies variously consider pain and suffering as somatic, emotional, and psychological experiences.
From examination of bodies shown victimized by brutal public torture to the sublimation of physical suffering conveyed through the incised lines of Counter-Reformation engravings, the authors consider depictions of pain and suffering as conduits to the divine or as guides to social behaviour; indeed, often the two functions overlap. Contact Sales. The collection includes all the 16th century books in the Library of the United Mennonite Congregation in Amsterdam, now housed in the Amsterdam University Library.
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