Deripaska was barred from travel to the United States and from entrance to the Davos economic summit in Switzerland. Deripaska has also become an outspoken opponent of Russia's entry into the World Trade Organization, clashing on the issue with U. The two are also major holders of tea and sugar plant processors. In July he was involved in a privatization scandal. Fridman has said that he wasn't surprised at the low price of the house he bought because another company held a year lease for that house at the time however, that lease was bought out very cheaply a week after the auction for the houses , and that he's not aware of the details of the sale as it was handled by his corporation's legal department.
In , Gusinsky launched his first independent newspaper, Sevodnya , which put him on his way to becoming "Russia's Rupert Murdoch. With Russia's war in Chechnya just beginning, Gusinsky's station was critical of President Boris Yeltsin and his policies. In , however, when a Communist Party presidential candidate presented a real threat to Yeltsin's reelection, the rising media magnate suspended all criticism. After Yeltsin won the reelection, Gusinsky was awarded the country's first private television network, NTV, and his media conglomerate, Media-MOST, expanded to include a satellite communications network, a series of radio stations and magazines, such as Itogi , jointly published with Newsweek.
By , Gusinsky reverted to his critical attitude toward the Yeltsin government and carried on his network a series of reports about the Yeltsin family and friends running the Kremlin.
Yeltsin did nothing to force Gusinsky off air, but President Vladimir Putin was another story. Putin waged a string of attacks against Gusinsky, who now lives in exile. Gazprom also took control of and closed Gusinsky's first newspaper Sevodnya and fired and locked out the staff of news magazine Igoti. Gusinsky knew Luzhkov when the former deputy mayor was in charge of handling Moscow's cooperative licenses.
The two became friends and even toured the United States together, courting corporate giants who wanted to enter the emerging Russian market. He was a member of the Big Seven, a group of oligarchs who backed Yeltsin's reelection campaign, and he even lent Yeltsin his chief aide to handle the president's media efforts. Lifestyle: Previous to his exile, Gusinsky lived in Moscow and owned a villa in the southern Spanish province of Cadiz.
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Notoriety: On his NTV network, Gusinsky broadcast a satiric puppet show, Kukly , that ridiculed the Russian political and business establishment. Putin tried to terminate the program, but Gusinsky persisted. When NTV was critical first of Putin's slow reaction to the sinking of the nuclear submarine Kursk , then of the government's inability to provide heat and electricity for freezing residents in Russia's Far East, Putin stepped up his anti-Gusinsky campaign.
Media-MOST's headquarters and offices were raided more than 30 times by everyone from masked tax police to deputies of the prosecutor general. In June , Gusinsky was arrested on charges of embezzlement and spent three days in a Moscow jail.
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In , before a Spanish high court threw out the case, he was confined to house arrest in his Spanish villa for several months, on fraud charges brought by the Russia government. This year, Gusinsky has been arrested again, this time in Athens on an international warrant for similar charges. Gusinsky was released, and a Greek court rejected Russia's request for extradition.
It was a dramatic end to a meteoric rise. The two men were academics and met in the s at the state railway institute, where Mr Ivanishvili was studying for a post-graduate degree in physics and Mr Malkin was a PhD candidate in Latin. With hard currency in their pockets, their next venture was to found five banks in the early s selling dollars in the midst of hyperinflation. RKB was on the verge of moving into the big league in the months before the crisis.
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But it was too little, too late. After the collapse of the currency, both Mr Ivanishvili and Mr Malkin dropped off the radar until last year. In the winter of , the government began to pick up the pieces. Mr Ivanishvili offered to put his industrial holding into the pot and hired KPMG to thrash out a realistic restructuring plan.
Depositors were paid off two years ago and the bank has been meeting scheduled payments on the rest.
Mr Ivanishvili is bucking the trend: while the other oligarchs are consolidating their industrial holdings and expanding overseas, he has changed tack and is in the process of dumping his industrial holdings in favour of finance. Last year, he hired London-based Daiwa Securities to look at the Russian banking sector and decide if there was a future for a medium-sized Russian bank in the market.
They decided there was. Impexbank chairman Pavel Lysenko says profits from the regional business are so high that capital invested to open regional offices can be earned back in less than 18 months. The bank already ranks 12th in terms of household deposits and sixth in terms of SME loans.
Despite the odd licensed banks, Russia is actually under-banked. The nominal rates of loans are high and still we are growing very fast. We have a lot of potential. He graduated from the D. From to , Mr. In Mr. In recent weeks he doubled his holding to 4. The holding will probably be worth a lot of money when Gazprom starts offering equity to foreign investors, a move all but sure to drive up the price of its shares.
If that sale did take place for the moment neither Kerimov nor Polymetal have confirmed it the transaction is interesting from a number of standpoints. Polymetal, which has been controlled up to now by St. Many foreign mining groups are lying in wait, such as Barrick Gold and AngloGold , even though outsiders have had a rough ride in Russia in recent years.
As a result, Kerimov is the man to watch in times ahead. From until , he worked as a scientific researcher in the Moscow Scientific Research Institute of Plastics. He was first appointed as a member of the Moscow city council Mossovet in , and in transferred to the executive branch of the Moscow city government Mosgorispolkom.
He held different positions, usually one level below the Mayor.
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In , Gavriil Popov was elected Mayor of Moscow in the first open free elections. However, Popov was not an experienced administrator, but rather an university professor whose popularity stemmed from his pro-democracy speeches and articles. Popov was overwhelmed by the responsibilities of office and resigned in June Luzhkov proved more skilled at managing the city than Popov, which earned him wide popular support among Muscovites.
While virtually an unknown when first appointed, Putin rapidly gained popular support thanks to a hard-line law and order image and the backing of powerful state-owned and state-allied media and economic interests. The hard-fought autumn Duma campaign inflicted a fatal blow against his larger political ambitions.
So battered was Luzhkov's political capital that Otechestvo-Vsya Rossiya ended up endorsing Putin in the presidential elections, which he won easily. After this crushing defeat, Luzhkov became less active in federal politics. In the Soviet Union every citizen required permission to settle in certain urban areas, such as Moscow, as the government wanted to limit the inflow into the big cities. The post-Soviet Russian constitution granted every Russian citizen freedom of movement.
However, Luzhkov has restricted this right by maintaining an unconstitutional registration process. His rationale has been that Moscow's city infrastructure could not handle a rapidly growing population. Under Luzhkov's registration regime, unregistered residents have trouble getting legal employment and are regularly harassed by the police. Some of the most blatant limitations were removed by the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court after a long fight with Luzhkov's lawyers, making the registration process somewhat simpler.
Now a person can spend 90 days in Moscow without any registration. Russian and foreign press have claimed that Mr. However, Luzhkov has never been charged with any corruption-related offences. Bashilova died from liver cancer in They have two daughters, Alyona born and Olga born Luzhkov frequently appears in public at different festivals and celebrations, and is an enthusiastic promoter of the city.